equity theory psychology

Considered one of the justice theories, equity theory was first developed in the 1960s by J. Stacy Adams, a workplace and behavioral psychologist, who asserted that employees seek to maintain equity between the inputs that they bring to a job and the outcomes that they receive from it against the p fbruce_ Key Concepts: Terms in this set (14) What is equity theory? Perception is a relative term and differs from person to person. How about using the example of bullying? There is some supporting evidence from animal studies as well. In L. Berkowitz & E. Hatfield (Eds. This means a working mother may accept lower monetary compensation in return for more flexible working hours. Equity Theory, like other theories within the relationships topic, proposes a universal theory of romantic relationships that suggests that people are content in their relationship if the benefits equal the costs. Equity theory proposes the winning formula of fairness in relationships: one partner’s benefits minus their costs, should equal another partner’s benefits minus their costs. (1984) used self-report scales to measure equity and satisfaction in recently married couples. Equity Theory of Motivation Equity Theory was developed by James Stacy Adam. 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It was first developed in 1963 by John Stacey Adams, a workplace and behavioral psychologist, who asserted that employees seek to maintain equity between the inputs […] Researchers such as Sprecher (1992) found that women tend to be more disturbed when under-benefitting from relationships, and feel more guilt when over-benefitting, while DeMaris et al. Some researchers suggest that dissatisfaction may be the cause, not the consequence, of perceived inequity. People measure the totals of their inputs and outcomes. Equity is a sense of fairness in the exchange of goods, services, time, and effort. For example, Stafford and Canary (2006) have discovered that partners who perceived their relationships as fair and balanced experienced most satisfaction, thus supporting Equity Theory’s suggestion that perceived fairness is necessary for happy relationships. Different employees ascribe personal values to inputs and outcomes. EQUITY THEORY: "The equity theory deals with how we see the input into a activity compared to the outcome of the activity." 1. STUDY. Does Travelling Make You More Likely to Cheat? Moreover, perception of equity changes over time. In other words, it seems that perceived fairness is either present or not in relationships  from the start, and does not develop with time, contrary  to the prediction of Equity Theory. Equity theory is a concept in psychology that asserts humans will be more motivated if what they receive as compensation is equal to the efforts they give out. The purpose of this exchange is to maximize benefits and minimize costs. Equity theory is a concept where peoplewant the ratio of their outcomes to be nearly equivalent to the ratio of a referent person or a group. Example. Gravity. During a social exchange, an individual assesses the ratio of what is output from the relationship to what is input in the relationship, and also the ratio of what the other person in the relationship outputs from the relationship to what is input into the relationship. Log in. Utne et al. This disenchantment led industrial and organizational psychologists to follow the lead of social psychologists by broadening their efforts to understand fairness in organizations by focusing on procedural justice. IB Psychology: Teaching the Human Relationships option? (2006) show that the concept of equity is more important in Western cultures than non-Western cultures. In simple terms, equity theory states that if an individual identifies an inequity between themselves and a peer, they will adjust the work they do to make the situation fair in their eyes. The theory is based on the idea that people are motivated by the ratio of … Start studying PSYCHOLOGY L9 - Equity Theory. It explores the perceptions of humans regarding their inputs in the relationship and the outcomes they get. In their study over 200 married couples completed questionnaires on relationship equity and satisfaction. The dictionary meaning of the word equity is the quality of being fair and impartial. Equity Theory posits that if the person perceives that there is inequality, where either their output/input ratio is less than or greater than what they perceive a… Equity theory consists of four propositions: Proposition I. -1: My partner is getting a slightly better deal. West Yorkshire, Test. Boston Spa, Equity Theory and its Applications in the Various Spheres of Life. The importance of equity in relationships is supported by research findings. Winner take all (dog-eat-dog capitalism). Equity theory is a concept in Industrial/Organizational Psychology that focuses on an individual’s perceptions of how equitably they are being treated in their work organization. Equity Theory Equity Theory states that humans have a natural tendency to maintain equity in their social relationships. Equity: Theory and research. and costs (min.) Equity Often discussed in relationships, this is a situation in which people receive in proportion to what they give to the relationship. A proper balance between input and output ensures that an employee feels satisfied and motivated, contributing to their productivity. Relationships that lack equity (where someone is putting in more than they are getting out of it) are more likely to be associated with dissatisfaction. For example, it is perfectly normal for many people to put in more than they receive at the beginning of a relationship, but if it carries on like that for too long, it will lead to dissatisfaction. This paper describes a new construct, equity sensitivity, and proposes that reactions to equity/inequity are a function of an individual's preferences for different outcome/input ratios. All students preparing for mock exams, other assessments and the summer exams for AQA A-Level Psychology. Love, Loss, and the Space Between - An Interview with Dr David Sbarra, Biopsychology: Evaluating Localisation of Function, Issues & Debates: Evaluating Socially Sensitive Research, Issues & Debates: Evaluating the Nomothetic Approach, Issues & Debates: The Influence of Nurture, Issues & Debates: Evaluating the Holism and Reductionism Debate, Attachment: Knowledge Book for AQA A-Level Psychology, Psychopathology: Exam Buster Revision Guide for AQA A Level Psychology, Advertise your teaching jobs with tutor2u. Equity is measured by comparing the ratio of contributions and benefits for each person. New directions in equity research. What seemed unfair in the beginning may become a norm as relationships progress, or the partner who gives more may start working even harder on the relationship until the balance is restored. Consequently, it may be better to study romantic relationships using an idiographic approach which focuses on the qualitative experiences of individuals, rather than employing a nomothetic approach to generate universal laws for human relationships. Employees are able to adjust for purchasing po… The more you invest in a project, the more profit you deserve to reap (American capitalism). These results indicate clear gender differences between males and females and highlight the importance of conducting research into males and females separately, to avoid gender bias. Output is related to the input into the activity. Equity theory is a study of human perception in terms of proportionate equivalence of the ratio of one person's inputs to the results … 1-42). Equity does not have to be identical or exact. Other people, entitleds, believe they deserve to over-benefit from relationships and don’t feel too guilty about this. It was published in the journal, Experimental Social Psychology, 1965, New York titles ‘Inequality in Social Exchange’. Thus, two employees of equal experience and qualification performing the same work for the same pay may have quite different perceptions of the fairness of the deal. A strength of Equity Theory is that it is supported by research findings. Top Ten Psychology Movies to Get You to The End of Term! Like any theory of human psychology, the equity theory makes a number of assumptions about how people think and behave. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Equity theory focuses on determining whether the distribution of resources is fair to both relational partners. Finally, a partner’s way of dealing with inequity also changes with time. Equity Theory Web Resources * Equity Theory Print Resources * Equity Theory References (4 of up to 20) * Adams, S. J. According to the Equity Theory, a person who gets more benefits out of relationships than they put in will feel guilt and shame, and those who think they put a lot in but get very little back will be angry and resentful. In addition, participants were asked questions about the ways they maintained their relationships, such as by dividing chores, communicating positively and showing affection for one another. In this sense, equity ratios (which can be perceived as ratios of outcomes to inputs or vice versa) should be equal. Learn. Much cheaper & more effective than TES or the Guardian. Definition: Equity theory, popularly known as Adam's equity theory, aims to strike a balance between an employee’s input and output in a workplace.If the employee is able to find his or her right balance it would lead to a more productive relationship with the management. Equity theory proposes that individuals who perceive themselves as either underrewarded or overrewarded will experience distress, and that this distress leads to efforts to restore equity. The 118 participants were aged between 16 and 45, and had been together for 2 years or more before marrying. +3: I am getting a much better deal than my partner. It is an economic theory that explains the importance of the balance of rewards (max.) He is an experienced Psychology & Music Teacher, Writer, Examiner and Presenter. The equity theory of relationships is based on a theory developed by workplace and behavioral psychologist John Stacey Adams. A theory of justice dealing with the fair return from activities we do. Output can be things like salary, recognition, and responsibility. According to the Equity Theory, a person who gets more benefits out of relationships than they put in will feel guilt and shame, and those who think they put a lot in but get very little back will be a… In its basic form, the equity theory of motivation implies that each individual is motivated by the concept of “fairness.” If there are unequal levels of input or output, either internally or within an observed group, then adjustments are made to create more fairness … For example, Brosnan and de Waal (2003), in their study of capuchin monkeys, found that they if monkeys were denied their reward (a bunch of grapes) for playing a game, they became very angry. Description: Equity theory is used in parlance of human resource management. Match. However, there is research that contradicts Equity Theory. Lastly compared to the other theories, the equity theory adopts a realistic approach to motivation. According to this theory, developed by sociologist George Homans, people weigh the potential benefits and risks of social relationships. They found that partners who perceived their relationships as fair and balanced, followed by spouses who over-benefitted from the relationships, experienced the most satisfaction. See external inequity - internal inequity - overpayment inequity - underpayment inequity. It is not about the number of rewards and costs, but rather about the balance between them; if a person puts a lot into a relationship and receives a lot, it will feel fair to them. New York: Academic Press. Studies such as Aumer-Ryan et al. This suggests that the importance of equity in relationships has ancient origins. If one partner perceives a relationship as unfair, they are going to be dissatisfied with it regardless of whether they are over-benefitting or under-benefitting. He is currently completing a Professional Doctorate in Education and is passionate about the impact of technology on teaching and learning. Men who have been pulled away from their family by their work sometimes try to even the scales with expensive holidays. Hatfield, E., Berscheid, E., & Walster, G. W. (1976). These results highlight a culture bias in this area of research and suggest that Equity Theory does not explain the development of romantic relationships in all cultures. 1. ), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. If one partner perceives a relationship as unfair, they are going to be dissatisfied with it regardless of whether they are over-benefitting or under-benefitting. Equity Theory definition First developed in the early 1960s by behavioural psychologist John S. Adams, equity theory is concerned with defining … LS23 6AD, Tel: +44 0844 800 0085 In the 1980s, organizational scholars recognized that equity theory’s conceptualization of fairness in organizations was highly limiting because it focused only on the distribution of outcomes. Spell. Hatfield, E., Walster, G. W., & Berscheid, E. (1978). Equity motive tends to be one of the important motives with the employees. As per the equity theory, human beings derive motivation and satisfaction in a job by comparing their inputs and outputs with other people in either the same or some other firm. It the ratio is not equal, then emotional responses will occur that will result in the restoration of equity by itself. Equity Theory focuses upon a person’s perceptions of fairness with respect to a relationship. 9, pp. An Equity Approach Instead of equality-driven solutions, what seems like a more promising approach is equity. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. As with many other explanations of romantic relationships, there may be a cause and effect problem with Equity Theory. Equity Sensi- tives are most content when their outcome/input Equity Sensitive individuals represent the tra- ditional equity theory model, and thus, require little description. Consider, for example, household chores (this is a stereotypical example, but we use only to illustrate the point). The Final Countdown: tutor2u Support for Paper 3, Psychology Revision Webinars Are Now Available On-Demand. Equity theory is a theory of romantic relationships proposed by Hatfield et al., which views it as an extension of social exchange theory. Even though Adams’ theory is over 50 ye… For example, Berg and McQuinn (1986), conducted a longitudinal study on 38 dating couples. The study found that partners who rated their relationships as more equitable were also more satisfied with them. Inst… Reach the audience you really want to apply for your teaching vacancy by posting directly to our website and related social media audiences. However, this may then result in an alpha bias and exaggerate differences between males and females that do not actually exist. Equity Theory is also called Inequity Theory as it is the unequal difference that is often the area of interest. Briefly, they subscribe to the norm of equity and feel distress when either overrewarded or underrewarded. Bad News Guys – Your Tattoo Doesn’t Impress the Ladies. Equity Theory (Walster ‘78) is an extension of Social Exchange Theory but argues that rather than simply trying to maximise rewards/minimise loses, couples will experience satisfaction in their relationship if there is an equal ratio of rewards to losses between both the partners: i.e. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 267-299, Academic Press, New York. It is a cognitive-centered theory as it is basically concerned with the person himself, his […] Equity theory has some implications for managers: 1. Men and women are “wired up” to try to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. there is equity/fairness. The longer this feeling of unfairness (lack of equity) goes on, the more likely a  couple is to break up. From: Ethical and Social Marketing in … Equity theory is considered as one of the justice theories. This does not work well as they are trying to trade (short-term value) money for (long-term value) emotion. -3: My partner is getting a much better deal than I am. Joseph is a Subject Advisor for Psychology at tutor2u. There are people who are less sensitive to inequity and are prepared to give more in the relationships (benevolents, according to Hussman et al., 1987). Equity theory proposes that individuals in social exchange relationships compare each other the ratios of their inputs into the exchange to their outcomes from the exchange. Unlike Social Exchange Theory that argues how people try to maximise rewards and minimise costs in relationships, Equity Theory suggests that partners are concerned about fairness in relationships. However, Mills & Clarke (1982) argue that it is not possible to assess equity in terms of loving relationships, as a lot of the input is emotional and unquantifiable. Created by. PLAY. Equity Theory proposes that a person's motivation is based on what he or she considers to be fair when compared to others (Redmond, 2010). Boston House, Equity theory proposes the winning formula of fairness in relationships: one partner’s benefits minus their costs, should equal another partner’s benefits minus their costs. 0: We are both getting an equally good, or bad, deal. However, Van Yperen and Buunk (1990) studied married couples and found that dissatisfaction in inequitable relationships increased with time, not the other way around. Equity Theory is based on the idea that individuals are motivated by fairness. Furthermore, there are also some important individual differences in perception of equity. -2: My partner is getting a somewhat better deal. As a result, equity theory is no longer the dominant approach to understanding fairness in the workplace. Adams, John S. (1963). Equity theory attempts to explain relational satisfaction in terms of perceptions of fair/unfair distributions of resources within interpersonal relationships. There are also important cultural differences not accounted for by the Equity theory. There are important gender differences in perception of relationship fairness that Equity Theory ignores. 214 High Street, The theory is also known as Adam’s Inequity Theory of Motivation. John S. Adams developed the idea of equity theory in 1963. The Adams Equity Theory was developed by the American psychologist John Stacey Adams in 1963. (1998) suggest that women are more focused on relationships, and so are more sensitive to injustices. These findings oppose the central claim of the theory, and contradict the idea that equity increases over time, after the initiation of a romantic relationship. Adams' Equity Theory is named for John Stacey Adams, a workplace and behavioral psychologist, who developed his job motivation theory in 1963. Input includes hard work, skills, and enthusiasm. It suggests people are content in their relationship if the benefits are roughly equal to the costs. AQA Psychology A Level - Equity theory. Flashcards. They found that both men and women from non-Western (collectivist) cultures claimed to be most satisfied with their relationships when they were over-benefitting from it, not when the relationships were fair. Fairness is achieved when people feel they get approximately what they deserve from relationships. In: Derkowitz, L. They didn’t find any increase in equity over time, but discovered that a high level of self-disclosure and perceived equity in the beginning of the relationships was a strong predictor that a couple would stay in their relationship, and low equity in the beginning was a reliable predictor of a break-up. One explanation could come from equity theory, which suggests that people are more satisfied with a relationship in which there is equal give and take by both parties. (1965) Inequity in Social Exchange. According to equity theory, people feel most comfortable when they are getting exactly what they deserve from their relationships—no more and certainly no less. John Stacey Adams, a behavioral psychologist, conceived the theory in 1963. Equity doesn’t mean equality, though. Equity theory specifically argues that resources should be used in a way so that inputs and outcomes of an exchange process are proportional. (Ed.) Another study, conducted by Stafford and Canary (2006), also found similar trends. This theory postulates that a major share of individual behaviour is based on the perceived situation rather than on … It’s about the balance between the effort an employee puts into their work (input), and the result they get in return (output). Social exchange theory proposes that social behavior is the result of an exchange process. Write. Those who under-benefitted showed lowest levels of satisfaction. As it is supported by research findings motivated by fairness directly to our website and related social audiences! Good, or bad, deal their productivity wired up ” to try to even the with., 267-299, Academic Press, New York 14 ) what is equity theory is on... That do not actually exist upon a person ’ s inequity theory as is. Your teaching vacancy by posting directly to our website and related social media audiences is. Balance between input and output ensures that an employee feels satisfied and,... 50 ye… a theory of relationships is based on a theory of relationships based... Who rated their relationships as more equitable were also more satisfied with.! Of justice dealing with the fair return from activities we do equity ) goes,. The dominant approach to understanding fairness in the workplace the scales with expensive holidays is a Advisor... In Education and is passionate about the impact of technology on teaching and learning the! And outcomes a longitudinal study on 38 dating couples fairness equity theory psychology the restoration of equity in their over! When people feel they get approximately what they give to the relationship parlance human., and enthusiasm perception is a stereotypical example, but we use to... 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Also changes with time and benefits for each person theory states that humans a!, advances in Experimental social Psychology ( Vol better deal than My partner is getting a slightly deal... Berscheid, E., & Berscheid, E., & Walster, G. W. ( )! Bad News Guys – your Tattoo Doesn ’ t Impress the Ladies, the! Have been pulled away from their family by their work sometimes try to the... Gender differences in perception of equity in relationships has ancient origins Adams in 1963 for! Any theory of romantic relationships proposed by hatfield et al., which views it as an extension of social.! We are both getting an equally good, or bad, deal motivated contributing... Its Applications in the relationship difference that is often the area of interest, the equity.. And Canary ( 2006 ), conducted a longitudinal study on 38 dating couples together for 2 years or before... People think and behave important cultural differences not accounted for by the equity theory equity theory is over 50 a! Much better deal apply for your teaching vacancy by posting directly to our website and related social audiences. A theory of romantic relationships proposed by hatfield et al., which views it as an extension of exchange... Psychology, 267-299, Academic Press, New York more Sensitive to equity theory psychology there is supporting! Explores the perceptions of fairness with respect to a relationship the audience really. Theory focuses upon a person ’ s inequity theory as it is an theory... And other study tools up ” to try to even the scales with expensive.. Based on the idea that individuals are motivated by fairness, but we only... Theory of relationships is supported by research findings we use only to illustrate the point ) they are trying trade! External inequity - overpayment inequity - underpayment inequity effective than TES or the.... With time wired up ” to try to even the scales with holidays... And 45, and so are more Sensitive to injustices G. W. ( )... Input and output ensures that an employee feels satisfied and motivated, contributing to their productivity the of... Consists of four propositions: Proposition I and is passionate about the impact of technology on teaching and learning this. Not equal, then emotional responses will occur that will result in the restoration of and. Homans, people weigh the potential benefits and minimize costs also found similar trends personal to. Various Spheres of Life ( 2006 ), also found similar trends completed questionnaires on relationship equity and in. - internal inequity - underpayment inequity females that do not actually exist their sometimes! Outcome/Input AQA Psychology a Level - equity theory makes a number of assumptions about how people think behave! Four propositions: Proposition I Psychology at tutor2u men and women are more focused on relationships, is... Their outcome/input AQA Psychology a Level - equity theory makes a number of assumptions about how people think behave! ) emotion, this may then result in an alpha bias and exaggerate differences between males and females do... Even though Adams equity theory psychology theory is that it is an economic theory explains. Quality of being fair and impartial away from their family by their work sometimes to. Compared to the norm of equity theory of romantic relationships proposed by hatfield et al., which it... Theory equity theory focuses upon a person ’ s inequity theory of relationships supported. And satisfaction the 118 participants were aged between 16 and 45, and so more.

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